Functions of the Xylem and Phloem - Transpiration, Translocation, Respiration in Plants


Xylem and Phloem - Transport in Plants - Part 1 Published on Sep 26, 2016

Plants have a transport system to move things around.

The xylem moves water and solutes, from the roots to the leaves in a process known as transpiration.

The phloem moves glucose and amino acids from the leaves all around the plant, in a process known as translocation.

The xylem and phloem are arranged in groups called vascular bundles. The arrangement is slightly different in the roots to the stems. The xylem are made up of dead cells, whereas the phloem is made up of living cells.

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Xylem and Phloem - Part 2 - Transpiration - Transport in Plants | Published on Oct 3, 2016

Transpiration is the evaporation of water from the aerial parts of a plant (so the leaves and stems).

By water evaporating out of these parts - mostly the leaves, a suction pressure is created which draws water up through the plant. This is called the transpiration pull.

Water passes in from the soil by osmosis, passing down the concentration gradient, and into the root hair cellís cytoplasm, and then on to the xylem vessels.

Water moves through the xylem vessels from the root to the stem to the leaf. As well as the leaf cells needing water for photosynthesis, water also keeps the cells turgid which supports the plant. Inside the leaves, water is drawn out of the xylem cells to replace the water lost through transpiration.

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Xylem and Phloem - Part 3 - Transpiration - Transport in Plants | Published on Oct 10, 2016

Sugars move up and down the plant in the phloem. The phloem uses active transport to transport the food nutrients like glucose and amino acids around the plant.

Glucose is made in the leaves by photosynthesis. Glucose is converted into sucrose in the leaves, which then enters the phloem vessels, as do amino acids. They then need to be transported around the plant to every single cell.

The areas of the plant where sucrose is made are called the sources, and where they are delivered are called sinks.

The phloem uses active transport because the sucrose moves against its concentration gradient from a lower concentration, where it is made, to a higher concentration in the phloem cells.

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